Welcome

April 16, 2012 5 comments

Welcome to the Spatial Reserves blog.

The GIS Guide to Public Domain Data was written to provide GIS practitioners and instructors with the essential skills to find, acquire, format, and analyze public domain spatial data. Some of the themes discussed in the book include open data access and spatial law, the importance of metadata, the fee vs. free debate, data and national security, the efficacy of spatial data infrastructures, the impact of cloud computing and the emergence of the GIS-as-a-Service (GaaS) business model. Recent technological innovations have radically altered how both data users and data providers work with spatial information to help address a diverse range of social, economic and environmental issues.

This blog was established to follow up on some of these themes, promote a discussion of the issues raised, and host a copy of the exercises that accompany the book.  This story map provides a brief description of the exercises.

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Finding Data on ArcGIS Hub Open Data Portal

December 10, 2018 Leave a comment

The ArcGIS Hub Open Data Portal  has in a short period of time become a very useful means by which geospatial data can be searched, found, and used.   I believe that there are two main reasons why:  The ArcGIS Hub (1) allows organizations to easily host their own data, and (2) provides an easy to use but powerful set of tools for users to find data.  At the time of this writing, nearly 111,000 data sets were linked to the ArcGIS Hub Open Data Portal from nearly 6,000 organizations worldwide.

In keeping with the theme of our book and this blog, pay close attention to each of the data sets listed here that you are interested in using, and make sure you understand the usage restrictions, if any.  Not all data sets listed are necessarily “open” for any conceivable use, so again, understand the licensing and usage for your desired data set.

One advantage to using the ArcGIS Hub Open Data Portal from the user’s perspective is its simple layout (Figure 1):  The user is presented with a search category box along with a location box; i.e. “near <location x>.”  This surprisingly straightforward interface reminds me of how simple I found Google search to be nearly 20 years ago after years of using WebCrawler, AltaVista, and other search engines.

My education outreach team recently used the ArcGIS Hub in an educational context, in our Esri MOOC entitled “Do It Yourself Geo-Apps”.  In the MOOC, we had participants leverage open data to build web apps using Washington D.C.’s Vision Zero Safety data to help people learn more about pedestrian and bicyclist safety within the community. Specifically, students in the course searched and found data on commuting in Washington DC, downloaded the data as a shapefile, and uploaded it to their ArcGIS Online account (Figure 2) and began analyzing it.

An alternative workflow becoming rapidly adopted, as we have documented in this blog, rather than download and upload, is to obtain the link for the data as a REST endpoint and add it directly into a working session in ArcGIS Online, from which analysis tools can be run.  To do this using the ArcGIS Hub, use the APIs link on the right side after you find your desired data set, with one modification:  The GeoService full dataset are often tagged with a query statement.  For example, the Michigan hydrography polygons are listed as:  https://gisago.mcgi.state.mi.us/arcgis/rest/services/OpenData/hydro/MapServer/17/query?outFields=*&where=1%3D1.  To view the data in ArcGIS Online, remove everything after MapServer/, as shown in Figure 3.

Another fascinating feature in that same right-hand zone on the metadata results page is “create story map”, which, as the name implies gets you started right away creating and displaying the data in a story map (Figure 4) – in my case, a map series story map.  From this point, you could add additional layers, audio, video, photographs, and narrative to this same story map.

It is understandable with any open portal such as this, with contributions from a wide variety of organizations, that some challenges will exist.  From the perspective of the data user, one of those current challenges is finding results to searches on medium sized polygon areas, such as “Colorado” or “Platte River drainage”.   However, in the above Washington DC example, even if you did not know the term “Vision Zero”, a search on bicycle safety near Washington DC would provide you the result you are seeking.  The data extent for the Washington DC Vision Zero covered the entire North Atlantic Ocean, but that’s no doubt the result of an improperly encoded data point.

There is much more to ArcGIS Hub than this open data portal.  ArcGIS Hub includes community engagement tools such as event management, comment management, engagement dashboards, and initiatives.  One of the most appealing things about the ArcGIS Hub is that if you have an ArcGIS Online subscription, you can share your own authoritative open data with ArcGIS Hub.  By using your existing ArcGIS Online groups to identify data to share, you can set up public-facing websites for people to easily find and download your data in a variety of open formats. Your open datasets are connected to the source and are automatically updated.   I highly recommend spending time with the ArcGIS Hub, beginning with the open data portal.

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Figure 1.  ArcGIS Hub Open Data interface, a very useful tool for finding geospatial data. 

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Figure 2.  Vision Zero safety data for Washington DC from the ArcGIS Hub streamed into ArcGIS Online. hub2

Figure 3.  Michigan hydrography data from the ArcGIS Hub streamed into ArcGIS Online.

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Figure 4.  Story map from Michigan hydrography polygons. 

A graphical aid in deciding whether geospatial data meets your needs

November 26, 2018 Leave a comment

The following graphic from an Esri course may be helpful when you are deciding whether or not you should use a specific GIS data set in your analysis.  Though simple, it contains several key elements in deciding fitness for use, a key topic in our blog and book, including metadata, scale, and currency.

Another helpful graphic and essay I have found helpful is Nathan Heazlewood’s 30 checks for data errors.  Another dated though useful set of text and graphic is from the people at PBCGIS here, where they review the process from abstraction of a situation of a problem, to considering the data model, fitness of data, understanding information needs, and examining the dichotomies of concise vs. confusing, credible vs. unfounded, and useful vs. not useful.  PBCGIS created a more detailed and useful set of considerations here.  My article published in Directions Magazine about search strategies might also be helpful.

Do you use graphical aids when making decisions about data, or when teaching this topic to others? If so, which are the most useful for you?

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A review of the Oregon Geospatial Data Portal

November 12, 2018 2 comments

We as the authors of this blog have been honored to review many state, national, and international GIS data portals throughout the years.  The state portals have included Texas, Utah, Maryland, and Indiana, and ranking among these great portals is the one from Oregon.  Named “The Oregon Spatial Data Library, at the time of this writing, the library lists 908 data items–an impressive number, but even more impressive is its simple, modern interface with the ability to browse by collection, format, sources, topics, and keywords–all listed on the left side.   The data sources include downloadable zip files but also streaming data services which as we have pointed out here, are rapidly becoming the preferred option for many users and uses.

The library is also linked to another fabulous resource– The Oregon Explorer, with its own mapping interface and information about fascinating places to visit, but also information about natural hazards and other themes of concern to residents and visitors of the state.  Thus, it is a tool for the visitor and general public, but also a research tool.  Through the library, one can also access the Communities Reporter, a resource for community planners and researchers with access to extensive data and maps.

Interestingly, the Oregon Community Foundation is listed as a partner, an organization that creates charitable funds for worthy causes in the state.  To have a resource such as a geospatial data library be considered a worthy cause brings me great joy!

I highly recommend investigating the Oregon Spatial Data Library.  I congratulate and salute all those involved in setting it up and maintaining this excellent resource.

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The Oregon Spatial Data Library, with investigation to discover land use land cover data. 

–Joseph Kerski

 

Hangar: A new on-demand UAV Data Service

October 28, 2018 Leave a comment

We have written about the rapid evolution of imagery platforms and portals many times in these blog essays over the years.  One major recent advancement is the UAV service from Hangar, an Esri business partner.  This service allows data users to order UAV imagery and receive it according to their project specifications:
https://www.spar3d.com/news/uav-uas/hangar-esri-reality-data-arcgis/

In my way of thinking, it is sort of like an” Uber for Drones”.  Let’s say you don’t have a pilot’s license, or time, or equipment, or expertise to fly your own UAV imagery.  Hangar is a new UAV service covering all areas that may be of interest to a client requiring imagery.  For this service, Esri partners with Hangar, a company that holds hundreds of waivers to fly almost anywhere and the expertise and equipment to serve clients from just about any discipline and with any need.   For more information, read the article “Hangar Joins Esri Startup Program to Add ‘Task & Receive’ Aerial Insights ArcGIS:”   https://www.prweb.com/releases/2018/05/prweb15514744.htm. 

And two of the best examples of some of the Hangar imagery is this story map of the devastation from the Carr fire in California and this story map showing some of their imagery for Kilauea, shown below.   Be sure to zoom and pan the 360-degree UAV imagery shown in these story maps.  Warning!  They are highly addictive and fascinating.  And for those of us in education, they make for an attention-getting teaching tools which I have already used numerous times from primary school to university and beyond to teach about wildfires and volcanic hazards.

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-Joseph Kerski

Categories: Public Domain Data Tags: , ,

One size doesn’t fit all – global and local mapping solutions

October 22, 2018 1 comment

Couple of interesting articles posted recently highlighting some of work undertaken by local groups providing detailed, custom mapping to meet specific local requirements and ongoing frustrations with the lack of adoption of some of these open data sources.

For most of us, the lack of information on street gradient, footpath kerb height and ramp details in popular online map services is usually not an issue but for those with a physical disability, this can be a problem. The University of Washington’s Taskar Center for Accessible Technology has come up with one solution, AccessMap, developed on an OpenStreetMap/OpenSideWalks platform, to provide safe and accessible trip planning information (Salman, 2018). AccessMap, currently limited to the city of Seattle in NW USA, integrates information from the USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) with sidewalks data from Seattle DoT and the HackcessibleMap – Sidewalks project, to provide a more detailed description of local conditions.

 

Shaikh (2018) describes the growing resistance in India to large corporations owning all the mapping data and not providing the level of detail necessary to help solve local community issues such as mapping fire catchment areas and managing litter collections. Many OpenStreetMap proponents in India, driven by different motivations but facing similar issues with respect to the lack of local detail, have stressed the importance of creating maps using local landmarks, knowledge and where possible providing the information in local languages. However, although detailed open data mapping resources have been used successfully in humanitarian aid projects and environmental monitoring schemes in India, there is sense that the detailed information now available in open data sources is not used to its full extent. One of the big challenges facing open data communities is to persuade government organisations and large companies to consider alternate open data sources for their mapping requirements.

 

 

Sensing air quality while photographing streets

October 15, 2018 1 comment

As described in an article in Business Wireair quality will be monitored on Google’s Street View vehicles starting with 50 cars in California.   Resulting from an agreement between Google and Aclima, carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and particulate matter (PM2.5) will be sensed initially.  “This snapshot data will be aggregated and designated with a representativeness indicator and will be made available as a public dataset on Google BigQuery. The complete dataset will be available upon request to advance air quality science and research.”

Because Google Street View vehicles are already collecting in many countries (though not all, for quite a variety of reasons, as we mention in our book), monitoring air quality seems like an efficient partnership to gather this information.  Doing so by vehicle rather than via a standard fixed-position air quality monitoring station adds the benefit of monitoring in many areas, and over many time periods throughout the day in those areas.   One possible challenge in assessing the resulting data is that the points will be gathered in different places, with little repeated detection in the same place at the same time.  In a very real sense, the Google Street View vehicles become part of the Internet of Things.  I wonder if by having the air quality sensors on the vehicles whether Google will be sending the vehicles out more often than their standard street view updates require; i.e. whether the new goals will actually influence the schedule of the data gathering itself.   In a very real sense, if that happens, it is another example of the disruptive transformational nature of modern web GIS.

I suspect this is only the beginning.  Given increased demand for data at finer and finer scales, it only makes sense for government organizations, private companies, and nonprofit organizations to think about the existing platforms and mechanisms by which data is already collected, and broker relationships to attach their own data gathering to these existing platforms.  It is conceivable that the Street View vehicles could be outfitted with additional sensors, and, in a short time from now, the vehicles will be analogous to smartphones:  Because smartphones can do so much more than make calls and receive calls, calling has become only a minor part of their functionality.  Perhaps in only a year or two, people will have to be reminded that the Street View vehicles can actually take photographs of the neighborhoods they are passing through.

The Geospatial Data Act Passes

October 4, 2018 1 comment

Last year we wrote about a called the Geospatial Data Act, S1253,  The Act passed in a bipartisan manner in October 2018, as reported by the American Association of Geographers.  This legislation will save U.S. taxpayers millions of dollars because it allows government agencies for better coordination, avoiding duplication of efforts, and to procure geospatial expertise, technology, services, and data from across the full range of the dynamic and rapidly growing U.S. geographic and geospatial community.  Also key is that the Act establishes procedures and guidance for the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC), which we have written about in this blog and in our book, and the National Geospatial Advisory Committee (NGAC).  After considering input from a variety of stakeholders, including the AAG, House and Senate committees finally settled on a streamlined bill stripped of the damaging provisions that would have limited federal procurement of geospatial data and services to a small segment of the geospatial community,” said the AAG.

As we described earlier, the Act should be a significant aid to visibility and advancement of geospatial technology.  Key segments of the Act include:

  • Section 2 defines the term ‘geospatial data’ for the US federal government.
  • Section 3 clarifies the role of a Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC).
  • Section 4 clarifies the role of a National Geospatial Advisory Committee (NGAC).
  • Section 5 describes the importance of a National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI).
  • Section 8 describes the creation and operation of the ‘GeoPlatform’ as an electronic service that provides access to geospatial data and metadata for geospatial data.

Keep an eye on this blog and other resources to keep track of benefits resulting from the Geospatial Data Act.

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The passage of the Geospatial Data Act promises to be a positive step forward for the geospatial industry.  Photograph by Joseph Kerski.