The International Politics of Cartography
In Feb 2012 Frank Jacobs wrote an article in the opinion pages of the The New York Times about The First Google Map Wars. The article recalled a day in Nov. 2010 when a Nicaraguan official strayed into neighbouring Costa Rica’s territory. When asked to defend his actions, the official simply replied he wasn’t trespassing according to Google Maps, which did indeed appear to indicate that particular piece of ground belonged to Nicaragua. In an attempt to settle the subsequent dispute, Google agreed to adjust the border.
We reported a similar incident in The GIS Guide to Public Domain Data about a dispute between India and Pakistan over the misrepresentation of the border between Pakistan and the disputed territory of Kashmir. Following threats of action from the Indian Government, Google again agreed to adjust their map of the region and tensions were, for the time being, diffused.
Many of us have become accustomed to using Google, Bing and other on-line mapping resources for many of our quick location-related queries. However, good as they are these resources are not infallible and mistakes do happen. As Jacobs comments, the boundaries depicted by Google Maps remain an unauthorised representation of borders and place names and ‘…popularity does not bestow authority’.