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Faces to Places: Location tracking and Facial Recognition Technology

October 7, 2019 Leave a comment

We have written many times over the years about insidious and invasive location tracking practices; the apps and devices we use that capture our location information until an outcry forces a rethink about personal rights and institutional ‘transparency’. Just when we start to think it’s all under control, another reason to be concerned emerges. Facial Recognition Technology (FRT) is now widely used in many countries, with live tracking via CCTV infrastructure now common practice. By comparing a database of existing photos with live images of crowds and individuals, possible matches at specific locations are flagged for further investigation.

Source: Skitterphoto (https://www.pexels.com)

Previously mobile devices – phones, tablets, activity trackers – could identify an individual at a particular location. That information could prove the device was at a location but not necessarily that the person owning the device was also present. With facial recognition large organisations and public authorities can now link a face to a place without the need to rely on the device-in-the-middle.

However, once again the widespread adoption of this technology has raced ahead of the legal safeguards governing its use. With frequent claims of the misuse of personal information, such as the recently reported case at London’s Kings Cross station, bias and the potential for misidentification (American Bar Association report) many groups are now calling for a review of FRT. San Francisco became the first US city this year to ban the use of FRT by its government although private companies are exempt from the regulation. The Chinese government recently announced plans to regulate the use of facial recognition technology in schools. Both the European Commission (EC) and the United Nations are also currently investigating how best to restrict the use of such technology. The EC is seeking to introduce additional regulations that will safeguard citizen rights over the use of their facial recognition data. 

Is FRT the ultimate personal location metric for the trackers? 2019 has seen an increase in awareness of the issues surrounding the use of this technology. Will 2020 see the introduction of additional regulation governing that use?

Copernicus Earth Observation Programme – Data and Information Access Services (DIAS)

August 13, 2019 1 comment

To facilitate access to the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Copernicus earth observation data (Sentinel satellites), the European Commission has funded five cloud-based platforms, known as the Data and Information Access Services (DIAS), to provide users with easy access to data from the various satellite missions. The data are available on the platforms, subject to account registration, as both open data and on a pay-per-use basis.

The following examples of data search and download options were taken from the WEkEO data service. The other data hosting services include ONDA, numdi, sobloo  and CREODIAS.

The raw data are available as NetCDF (.nc) files on the WEkEO site, an example of which is shown here using the Panoply data viewer.

There are various tools available to convert NetCDF files to more GIS friendly formats such as the Marine Geospatial Ecology Tools, a free add-on for ArcGIS that converts NetCDF to ASCII and ArcGrid formats.

 

 

 

Categories: Public Domain Data Tags: , ,

Verifying location data with blockchain cryptography

May 20, 2019 1 comment

Following on from Joseph’s recent post on some of the issues associated with the plethora of image resources we now have access to, another interesting aspect of verifying those data sources relates to the basic premise of proof. How can a data provider, whether that’s an individual or global company, prove the data they collect and publish are an authoritative and accurate representation of the locations they seek to record? The problems associated with Geolocation and GPS Spoofing are not new, with many protocols and procedures now in place to help prevent this type of deception. Conversely, GPS simulators are generally available, making it relatively easy for location hackers to interfere with GPS signals.

So how do data providers prove entities, in both the physical and human-made environments, really do exist at a particular location? One company, XYO, has been working on an alternative to satellite networks as a source of verified location information – the XYO Network. By augmenting our increasingly interconnected network of digital devices with location tracking technologies that incorporate blockchain cryptography, these co-opted devices (acting as sentinels or bridges) can be configured to recognise, validate and confirm the location of each other. As each device acts as a witness to the location of other devices; the more witnesses there are confirming a device’s location, the less chance there is that location is incorrect. The end result is a decentralised location data network that is arguably at less risk of being compromised.

Bound witnesses (sentinel and bridge devices) in San Francisco – https://matrix.xyo.network/map

Using device networks in this manner is an interesting new development in evolution of geospatial data and an emerging technology to watch.

 

New open location data services for Europe

April 22, 2019 1 comment

New open location data services developed by the Open European Location Services (ELS) project were recently demonstrated at the Geospatial World Forum earlier this month. Included in the test data services on show were EuroGlobalMap—a 1:1 million topographic dataset covering 45 countries and territories across Europe—and a geographical names gazetteer.

EuroGlobalMap

EuroGlobalMap

 

The Open ELS project is a two-year programme (started May 2017) aimed at improving access to location-based information captured and maintained by various public bodies across Europe. Among the participating organisations are national mapping authorities from Great Britain, Poland, Germany, Finland, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the Netherlands. Although there is no universally accepted definition of open data, the Open ELS project has defined open data as … Date from nation sources available free of charge under an open licence that are free to access and made available to the public without any restriction that impedes reuse.

With the exception of one EuroGlobalMap web feature service, which is licensed separately, the remaining data services developed for the ELS project are available under the Open ELS licence. Any one using the Open ELS data services is free to:

  • Copy, publish, share and re-use the data
  • Adapt the data and services
  • Use the data for both commercial and non-commercial applications

There no indication yet when the data services will be generally available; a demonstration site is available at https://demo.locationframework.eu/.

 

Location Tracking: Getting Under The Skin

March 11, 2019 Leave a comment

We’ve written many times over the last few years about the varying ways devices can track our location, with or without our explicit consent. In most cases our tracks are determined by our interaction with and/or our adjacency to a tracking device; the boundaries of our location privacy determined by the range and sophistication of those devices and to some extent our application preferences. To stop the location tracking, all we needed to do was change the settings, turn off the device or leave it at home and avoid the cameras. However, recent advances in microchip technology look set to change the boundaries of location tracking once more.

Microchip implants have been around for over 20 years, from early experiments proving RFID (radio frequency identification) implants could be used to open doors and turn on lights, to pet and patient microchips for storing identification and medical information. The next generation of microchips will see the inclusion of location tracking technology. Within the last year some new microchips have been introduced that can be read from a distance, are connected to the internet and GPS-enabled. With an embedded GPS-enabled microchip, we become the tracking device.

One company involved in this area, Three Square Market (32M), have been working on a voice-activated, body-heat-powered chip that will monitor an individual’s vital signs and track their location via GPS. With plans to test the new chips this year, 32M are focussing initially on dementia patients. With all such new technology, there always the potential to misuse and abuse the information collected, and as with the introduction of other tracking devices such as drones, the legislation governing the use of GPS-enable microchips lags behind. As Weiss notes (2018) ‘… how will lawmakers and experts in security and tech react when required to define consent for a patient with advanced dementia?

With embedded microchip devices that can transmit and receive location and other information over an increasingly wide area, can there be any guarantees that the individual hosting the device will have complete control over who has access to their location information?

Quality Matters…

December 17, 2018 Leave a comment

When Apple Maps was launched six years ago it was not a resounding success, by any measure. Although much of the criticism levelled at Apple focussed on the application interface and the lack of some keys features Google Maps users took for granted, for many the main issue was the quality of the map data. Apple Maps was originally delivered on a platform of third party map data, including TomTom and OpenStreetMap, with the majority of the satellite imagery sourced from DigitalGlobe. In response to the criticism, Apple vowed to do better and set off on a mission to improve the application and challenge the dominance of Google Maps.

Many application upgrades later, the map data is still not considered to be of the same quality as Google Maps. For example, zoom into a location in Queens, New York and compare the quality and range of information reported for local transport services in Google Maps compared to the same site and services reported in Apple Maps. Both Apple and Google Maps provide the number of the bus service using a particular stop but Google Maps provides more … street view data to visualise (and confirm) the location of the bus stop and better integration of supplementary traffic and transport service information. 

Queens, New York – Google Maps

The same bus stop in Apple Maps is shown at a slightly different location (further to the east along 48th Ave) and lacks the integrated street view. 

Queens, New York – Apple Maps

All that is set to change with an ambitious plan from Apple to rebuild their map data platform (see reports in TechCrunch and Medium). Taking a leaf out of the Google handbook on data collection, Apple have invested in specially equipped vans and drones, decked out with GPS, LiDAR, high resolution cameras and other data capture tools. In addition, Apple is also generating map information from anonymised iOS device data, adopting a strict ‘privacy-by-design’ methodology, to improve road network and pedestrian traffic information. 

The new in-house Apple Maps service has been available on a limited basis in California, USA for a few months now and there are plans to roll the service out to the whole USA over the next year. No word yet on when it will be available further afield.

One size doesn’t fit all – global and local mapping solutions

October 22, 2018 1 comment

Couple of interesting articles posted recently highlighting some of work undertaken by local groups providing detailed, custom mapping to meet specific local requirements and ongoing frustrations with the lack of adoption of some of these open data sources.

For most of us, the lack of information on street gradient, footpath kerb height and ramp details in popular online map services is usually not an issue but for those with a physical disability, this can be a problem. The University of Washington’s Taskar Center for Accessible Technology has come up with one solution, AccessMap, developed on an OpenStreetMap/OpenSideWalks platform, to provide safe and accessible trip planning information (Salman, 2018). AccessMap, currently limited to the city of Seattle in NW USA, integrates information from the USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) with sidewalks data from Seattle DoT and the HackcessibleMap – Sidewalks project, to provide a more detailed description of local conditions.

 

Shaikh (2018) describes the growing resistance in India to large corporations owning all the mapping data and not providing the level of detail necessary to help solve local community issues such as mapping fire catchment areas and managing litter collections. Many OpenStreetMap proponents in India, driven by different motivations but facing similar issues with respect to the lack of local detail, have stressed the importance of creating maps using local landmarks, knowledge and where possible providing the information in local languages. However, although detailed open data mapping resources have been used successfully in humanitarian aid projects and environmental monitoring schemes in India, there is sense that the detailed information now available in open data sources is not used to its full extent. One of the big challenges facing open data communities is to persuade government organisations and large companies to consider alternate open data sources for their mapping requirements.